Movement of an extremity away from the body.
A pus-filled area that affects skin or organs.
The receptacle for the head of the femur; formed by
the ilium, ischium, and pubis.
Inflammation of the Achilles tendon often caused by
increased activity, improper footwear, or tight
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
A disease that is characterized by profound immune
system suppression and associated with opportunistic
infections, secondary neoplasms, and neurologic
manifestations. Caused by the human immunodeficiency
Overgrowth of the bones of the hands, feet, and
A lateral condensation of bone that is the
attachment site for the lateral and posterior two
thirds of the deltoid muscle.
The insertion of needles into precisely defined
points on the body; thought to realign imbalances of
yin-yang and qi and thereby bring harmony to the
"climate" of an individual
Movement of an extremity toward the body.
Enlargement of the glands.
Self-limiting condition resulting from any
inflammatory process about the shoulder in which
capsular scar tissue is produced, resulting in pain
and limited range of motion; also called frozen
Exercise that uses oxidative metabolic pathways to
Muscles that produce body movement in the same
A substance that produces an allergic reaction.
Biologic tissue from a cadaver that is used to
surgically replace damaged tissue
A wide spectrum of treatments-many finding support
from collective anecdotal evidence-that is not
considered standard therapy because of the lack of a
scientific rationale, clinical evidence, or a
favorable historic tradition
Assessment of the injured athlete where the athlete
is seen by the athletic trainer at some point
following the injury.
Loss of the menstrual cycle. Considered part of the
female athlete triad.
Synthetic derivatives of testosterone originally
developed to treat hypogonadism in men, lost muscle
mass in patients debilitated by illness, and severe
anemia. Sometimes used to enhance muscle-building
effects in athletes.
Exercise of short duration, not requiring the body's
utilization of oxygen to make fuel available
Oxygen debt; when the cardiovascular system is
unable to meet the needs of the working muscles, the
anaerobic metabolism is activated
The relief of pain
A pain-relieving effect with no loss of
A violent hypersensitivity reaction, resulting in
An inflammatory disorder that affects the low back
and pelvis and produces stiffness and pain
Marked stiffness of a joint typically observed with
end-stage arthritis, following a complex
intra-articular fracture, delayed treatment of
septic arthritis, or severe rheumatoid arthritis
A region of the intervertebral disk that provides
support for the nucleus.
A nutritional disorder that occurs in as many as 1%
of individuals in a vulnerable population in which
an individual refuses to maintain body weight over a
minimal normal weight for age and height.
Muscles that produce body movement in opposing
Anterior compartment syndrome
Increased soft-tissue pressure in the anterior
compartment of the lower leg, resulting in pain,
decreased sensation, and muscle paralysis
Anterior cruciate ligament tears
An acute knee injury that occurs when the foot is
planted, the knee is flexed, and a valgus force is
applied to the knee with the lower leg in external
rotation; commonly occurs in sports that require
twisting, jumping, and pivoting.
Anterior superior iliac spine
Blunt bony projection on the anterior border of the
ilium, forming the anterior end of the iliac crest.
Serves as the origin of the sartorius muscle.
Surface at the front of the body, facing the
Anteromedial rotatory instability
When the medial plateau of the tibia rotates
anteriorly and medial joint opening occurs,
indicating disruption of the superficial tibia
collateral ligament, medial and posteromedial
capsular structures, and anterior cruciate ligament
Anteroposterior (AP) view
Anterior-posterior view in which the x-ray tube is
in front and the film cassette is in back. The x-ray
beam passes from front to back.
A substance that can counteract a poison.
Foreign substances that can infiltrate the body,
including bacteria, fungi, parasites, toxic
chemicals, and abnormal body cells, prompting the
production of antibodies that attempt to destroy the
A drug that counteracts the effects of histamine;
one use is to relieve the symptoms of an allergic
A fever-relieving or -reducing property.
The outer ring of fibrous material surrounding the
nucleus of the intervertebral disks
A broad, fibrous sheet that attaches one muscle to
A cartilaginous structure at the insertion of major
muscle groups into bone that may be susceptible to
overuse syndromes and acute fractures in pediatric
Inflammation of the appendix, the small intestinal
pouch that extends from the cecum.
Small tubular branches of the arteries.
Aspiration of a joint
The surgical fusion of a joint. The procedure
removes any remaining articular cartilage and
positions the adjacent bones to promote bone growth
across a joint. A successful fusion eliminates the
joint and stops motion. The usual purpose is pain
relief or stabilization of an undependable joint
A procedure in which a contrast medium is injected
into a joint to outline soft tissues such as the
meniscus in the knee or a torn structure such as the
rotator cuff in the shoulder. MR arthrography is a
technique in which a diluted contrast medium such as
gadolinium is injected into a joint to improve the
delineation of soft tissues. Standard MRI is
obtained following the injection.
Vertebral motion that occurs within the joint
capsule at the articulations.
procedure to replace or mobilize a joint, typically
performed by removing the arthritic surfaces and
replacing them with an implant. Total joint
arthroplasty is replacement of both sides of the
joint. Hemiarthroplasty replaces only one side of a
A form of minimally invasive surgery in which a
fiberoptic camera, the arthroscope, is introduced
into an area of the body through a small incision
A smooth, glistening surface that covers the ends of
bones that articulate with each other to form a
Removal of fluids from a body cavity; often done to
obtain specimens for analysis
A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways
associated with changes in airway
An infection of the toe web space.
A qualified allied healthcare provider who is
educated in the management of healthcare problems of
Atlantoaxial subluxation (AAS)
An orthopaedic problem seen frequently in athletes
with Down syndrome that poses a significant risk to
athletes participating in sports that involve bodily
contact. Joint looseness, ligamentous laxity, or
malformation of the vertebrae or surrounding
structures causes the C1 vertebra to slip forward
and compress the spinal cord, particularly when the
neck is in flexion or extension.
A rare condition consisting of congenital fusion of
the ring of the atlas to the occiput; considered an
absolute contraindication for contact sports.
The first cervical vertebra (C1).
The upper chambers of the heart, composed of the
left and right atria.
Biologic tissue from the patient's own body that is
used to surgically replace damaged tissue
A health concern for athletes with a spinal cord
injury above level T8 in which the athlete
experiences dizziness, sweating, headaches, and
potentially severe hypertension. A plugged urethral
catheter is the most common trigger; however, fecal
impaction, renal calculi or infections, and pressure
sores can also cause the condition.
A condition in which cells die as a result of
inadequate blood supply; see also osteonecrosis
A fracture that occurs when a ligament or tendon
pulls off a sliver of the bone
A fracture caused by a violent muscle contraction or
sudden passive stretch. Also, pulling off of the
osseous insertion or origin in a child.
A force directed along the vertical axis of the
cervical spine that is part of almost every serious
A load directed vertically along the axis of the
cervical spine during a compression force such as
spearing or a head-on collision.
The second cervical vertebra (C2).
A grade II nerve injury resulting from nerve
stretching in which the endoneurium remains intact.